Infertility is a medical condition related to female reproductive system that prevents the woman to conceive. There are several causes of infertility like ovulation problem, blocked Fallopian tubes, urinary tract problem, stress, age, poor diet plan, athletic training in which the most common cause is with ovulation. There will be no eggs to be fertile without ovulation. Ovulation problems generally occur due to irregularity in menstrual periods and in some cases also caused by Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome(PCOS). Infertility in men can be occurring due to varicocele, low sperm count or absent sperm count or certain disease. Along with these use of alcohol, drug, smoking, excessive levels of toxin in body, radiotherapy, chemotherapy also increase the risk of infertility in men. Infertility can be occurring due to 33% of women, 33% of men and 33% by both male and female.
An infertility specialist is also known as a RE (Reproductive Endocrinologist) who is expert in the field of infertility. Infertility specialists are not only having specialization in obstetrics and gynecology called reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) but also having concern on hormones, physiology, nutition and much more. They focus on people to get and stay pregnant. It means they focus all the time about latest research, attending conferences over infertility. They know about the latest way of treatment which a normal Ob/Gyn don't.
These specialists are different from an Ob/Gyn as they have to be updated with the latest research. They focus on every research because they understand that a small changes can even makes a large difference and gives better result in case of pregnancy. Infertility specialists closely observe the history of both the partners and then give some tests which may include sperm studies in men, ovulation tests, ultrasound in women. Infertility can be treated in several ways. It can be treated with medicines, surgery also gives better results in some cases, and artificial insemination is also an option in which sperm is injected in a woman into the uterus. There are several medicines which gives better results in women infertility.
In some cases, infertility specialists also do ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology) in which a woman's eggs are firstly removed and then mixed with the sperm to make embryos outside the woman's body and then placed back into the woman's body. Success rate of ART depends on the woman's age. Surrogacy is also a way to have a baby in which male partner sperm is used to fertilize another woman's egg and that woman carries the baby until birth of the baby and then the baby is adopted. Days are gone when infertility was permanent. Now a days several treatments and ways by which fertility can be obtained.